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mod_unique_id - Apache 2.2 中文版参考手册

apache > HTTP Server > 文档 > 版本2.2 > 模块
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apache模块 mod_unique_id 说明状态模块名源文件
为每个请求生成唯一的标识以便跟踪
扩展(E)
unique_id_module
mod_unique_id.c
概述

This module provides a magic token for each request which is guaranteed to be unique across "all" requests under very specific conditions. The unique identifier is even unique across multiple machines in a properly configured cluster of machines. The environment variable UNIQUE_ID is set to the identifier for each request. Unique identifiers are useful for various reasons which are beyond the scope of this document.

Theory

First a brief recap of how the Apache server works on Unix machines. This feature currently isn't supported on Windows NT. On Unix machines, Apache creates several children, the children process requests one at a time. Each child can serve multiple requests in its lifetime. For the purpose of this discussion, the children don't share any data with each other. We'll refer to the children as httpd processes.

Your website has one or more machines under your administrative control, together we'll call them a cluster of machines. Each machine can possibly run multiple instances of Apache. All of these collectively are considered "the universe", and with certain assumptions we'll show that in this universe we can generate unique identifiers for each request, without extensive communication between machines in the cluster.

The machines in your cluster should satisfy these requirements. (Even if you have only one machine you should synchronize its clock with NTP.)

  • The machines' times are synchronized via NTP or other network time protocol.
  • The machines' hostnames all differ, such that the module can do a hostname lookup on the hostname and receive a different IP address for each machine in the cluster.

As far as operating system assumptions go, we assume that pids (process ids) fit in 32-bits. If the operating system uses more than 32-bits for a pid, the fix is trivial but must be performed in the code.

Given those assumptions, at a single point in time we can identify any httpd process on any machine in the cluster from all other httpd processes. The machine's IP address and the pid of the httpd process are sufficient to do this. So in order to generate unique identifiers for requests we need only distinguish between different points in time.

To distinguish time we will use a Unix timestamp (seconds since January 1, 1970 UTC), and a 16-bit counter. The timestamp has only one second granularity, so the counter is used to represent up to 65536 values during a single second. The quadruple ( ip_addr, pid, time_stamp, counter ) is sufficient to enumerate 65536 requests per second per httpd process. There are issues however with pid reuse over time, and the counter is used to alleviate this issue.

When an httpd child is created, the counter is initialized with ( current microseconds divided by 10 ) modulo 65536 (this formula was chosen to eliminate some variance problems with the low order bits of the microsecond timers on some systems). When a unique identifier is generated, the time stamp used is the time the request arrived at the web server. The counter is incremented every time an identifier is generated (and allowed to roll over).

The kernel generates a pid for each process as it forks the process, and pids are allowed to roll over (they're 16-bits on many Unixes, but newer systems have expanded to 32-bits). So over time the same pid will be reused. However unless it is reused within the same second, it does not destroy the uniqueness of our quadruple. That is, we assume the system does not spawn 65536 processes in a one second interval (it may even be 32768 processes on some Unixes, but even this isn't likely to happen).

Suppose that time repeats itself for some reason. That is, suppose that the system's clock is screwed up and it revisits a past time (or it is too far forward, is reset correctly, and then revisits the future time). In this case we can easily show that we can get pid and time stamp reuse. The choice of initializer for the counter is intended to help defeat this. Note that we really want a random number to initialize the counter, but there aren't any readily available numbers on most systems (i.e., you can't use rand() because you need to seed the generator, and can't seed it with the time because time, at least at one second resolution, has repeated itself). This is not a perfect defense.

How good a defense is it? Suppose that one of your machines serves at most 500 requests per second (which is a very reasonable upper bound at this writing, because systems generally do more than just shovel out static files). To do that it will require a number of children which depends on how many concurrent clients you have. But we'll be pessimistic and suppose that a single child is able to serve 500 requests per second. There are 1000 possible starting counter values such that two sequences of 500 requests overlap. So there is a 1.5% chance that if time (at one second resolution) repeats itself this child will repeat a counter value, and uniqueness will be broken. This was a very pessimistic example, and with real world values it's even less likely to occur. If your system is such that it's still likely to occur, then perhaps you should make the counter 32 bits (by editing the code).

You may be concerned about the clock being "set back" during summer daylight savings. However this isn't an issue because the times used here are UTC, which "always" go forward. Note that x86 based Unixes may need proper configuration for this to be true -- they should be configured to assume that the motherboard clock is on UTC and compensate appropriately. But even still, if you're running NTP then your UTC time will be correct very shortly after reboot.

UNIQUE_ID environment variable is constructed by encoding the 112-bit (32-bit IP address, 32 bit pid, 32 bit time stamp, 16 bit counter) quadruple using the alphabet [A-Za-z0-9@-] in a manner similar to MIME base64 encoding, producing 19 characters. The MIME base64 alphabet is actually [A-Za-z0-9+/] however +和/ need to be specially encoded in URLs, which makes them less desirable. All values are encoded in network byte ordering so that the encoding is comparable across architectures of different byte ordering. The actual ordering of the encoding is: time stamp, IP address, pid, counter. This ordering has a purpose, but it should be emphasized that applications should not dissect the encoding. Applications should treat the entire encoded UNIQUE_ID as an opaque token, which can be compared against other UNIQUE_IDs for equality only.

The ordering was chosen such that it's possible to change the encoding in the future without worrying about collision with an existing database of UNIQUE_IDs. The new encodings should also keep the time stamp as the first element, and can otherwise use the same alphabet and bit length. Since the time stamps are essentially an increasing sequence, it's sufficient to have a flag second in which all machines in the cluster stop serving and request, and stop using the old encoding format. Afterwards they can resume requests and begin issuing the new encodings.

This we believe is a relatively portable solution to this problem. It can be extended to multithreaded systems like Windows NT, and can grow with future needs. The identifiers generated have essentially an infinite life-time because future identifiers can be made longer as required. Essentially no communication is required between machines in the cluster (only NTP synchronization is required, which is low overhead), and no communication between httpd processes is required (the communication is implicit in the pid value assigned by the kernel). In very specific situations the identifier can be shortened, but more information needs to be assumed (for example the 32-bit IP address is overkill for any site, but there is no portable shorter replacement for it).

mod_userdir - Apache 2.2 中文版参考手册

apache > HTTP Server > 文档 > 版本2.2 > 模块
   致谢 | 译者声明 | 本篇译者:金步国 | 本页最后更新:2006年1月29日 | 获取最新版本
apache模块 mod_userdir 说明状态模块名源文件
允许用户从自己的主目录中提供页面(使用"/~username")
基本(B)
userdir_module
mod_userdir.c
概述

此模块允许使用类似http://example.com/~user/的语法来访问用户网站目录。

UserDir 指令 说明语法作用域状态模块
用户网站目录的位置
UserDir directory-filename
server config, virtual host
基本(B)
mod_userdir

UserDir指令指定了用户目录下的一个实实在在的目录,存放了该用户提供访问的文档。Directory-filename可以是以下几种形式之一:

  • 一个目录名或如下所示的匹配模式:
  • 关键词disabled停止所有用户名到目录的转换,但不包括明确使用enabled启用的(见下面)目录。
  • 关键词disabled并跟随一个以空格分隔的用户名列表(其中的用户即使出现在enabled的用户列表中,也不会进行目录转换)。
  • 关键词enabled并跟随一个以空格分隔的用户名列表。此列表中的用户允许进行目录转换,即使有一个全局的disabled关闭了此操作,但是,如果同时出现在disabled的用户列表中,则不执行转换操作。

如果在Userdir指令中,既没有enabled也没有disabled关键词,则其参数将被视为文件匹配模式,用于转换成目录名。对http://www.foo.com/~bob/one/two.html的请求会被转换为:

UserDir 指令转换后的路径
UserDir public_html~bob/public_html/one/two.html
UserDir /usr/web/usr/web/bob/one/two.html
UserDir /home/*/www/home/bob/www/one/two.html

下列指令将发送重定向到客户端:

UserDir 指令转换后的路径
UserDir http://www.foo.com/usershttp://www.foo.com/users/bob/one/two.html
UserDir http://www.foo.com/*/usrhttp://www.foo.com/bob/usr/one/two.html
UserDir http://www.foo.com/~*/http://www.foo.com/~bob/one/two.html
注意:使用此指令时要很小心,例如"UserDir ./"可能会把"/~root映射到"/"而这可能不是我们想要的。强烈建议在配置文件中包含一个"UserDir disabled root"声明。更多信息请参见Directory指令和安全提示。

举例:

允许某些用户使用UserDir指令,而禁止其他用户:

UserDir disabled
UserDir enabled user1 user2 user3

允许大多数用户使用UserDir指令,而禁止一小部分用户:

UserDir enabled
UserDir disabled user4 user5 user6

还可以指定任选其一的(alternative)用户网站目录:

Userdir public_html /usr/web http://www.foo.com/

对http://www.foo.com/~bob/one/two.html的请求,会首先尝试获取"~bob/public_html/one/two.html",其次是"/usr/web/bob/one/two.html",最后产生一个到http://www.foo.com/bob/one/two.html的重定向。

如果要增加重定向,则必须放在列表的最后。因为Apache不能判断重定向是否成功,所以如果不放在最后,那么它只是一个替换地址。

2.1.4及以后的版本中,默认不开启用户网站目录。在未设置UserDir指令的情况下将使用"UserDir public_html"默认值。

参见

  • 用户网站目录

mod_usertrack - Apache 2.2 中文版参考手册

apache > HTTP Server > 文档 > 版本2.2 > 模块
   致谢 | 译者声明 | 本篇译者:<虚位以待> | 本篇译稿完成时间:?年?月?日 | 获取最新版本
apache模块 mod_usertrack 说明状态模块名源文件
使用Session跟踪用户(会发送很多Cookie),以记录用户的点击流
扩展(E)
usertrack_module
mod_usertrack.c
概述

Previous releases of Apache have included a module which generates a 'clickstream' log of user activity on a site using cookies. This was called the "cookies" module, mod_cookies. In Apache 1.2 and later this module has been renamed the "user tracking" module, mod_usertrack. This module has been simplified and new directives added.

Logging

Previously, the cookies module (now the user tracking module) did its own logging, using the CookieLog directive. In this release, this module does no logging at all. Instead, a configurable log format file should be used to log user click-streams. This is possible because the logging module now allows multiple log files. The cookie itself is logged by using the text %{cookie}n in the log file format. For example:

CustomLog logs/clickstream "%{cookie}n %r %t"

For backward compatibility the configurable log module implements the old CookieLog directive, but this should be upgraded to the above CustomLog directive.

2-digit or 4-digit dates for cookies?

(the following is from message <022701bda43d$9d32bbb0$1201a8c0@christian.office.sane.com> in the new-httpd archives)

From: "Christian Allen" <christian@sane.com>
Subject: Re: Apache Y2K bug in mod_usertrack.c
Date: Tue, 30 Jun 1998 11:41:56 -0400

Did some work with cookies and dug up some info that might be useful.

True, Netscape claims that the correct format NOW is four digit dates, and
four digit dates do in fact work... for Netscape 4.x (Communicator), that
is. However, 3.x and below do NOT accept them. It seems that Netscape
originally had a 2-digit standard, and then with all of the Y2K hype and
probably a few complaints, changed to a four digit date for Communicator.
Fortunately, 4.x also understands the 2-digit format, and so the best way to
ensure that your expiration date is legible to the client's browser is to
use 2-digit dates.

However, this does not limit expiration dates to the year 2000; if you use
an expiration year of "13", for example, it is interpreted as 2013, NOT
1913! In fact, you can use an expiration year of up to "37", and it will be
understood as "2037" by both MSIE and Netscape versions 3.x and up (not sure
about versions previous to those). Not sure why Netscape used that
particular year as its cut-off point, but my guess is that it was in respect
to UNIX's 2038 problem. Netscape/MSIE 4.x seem to be able to understand
2-digit years beyond that, at least until "50" for sure (I think they
understand up until about "70", but not for sure).

Summary: Mozilla 3.x and up understands two digit dates up until "37"
(2037). Mozilla 4.x understands up until at least "50" (2050) in 2-digit
form, but also understands 4-digit years, which can probably reach up until

  1. Your best bet for sending a long-life cookie is to send it for some
    time late in the year "37".
CookieDomain 指令 说明语法作用域覆盖项状态模块
The domain to which the tracking cookie applies
CookieDomain domain
server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
FileInfo
扩展(E)
mod_usertrack

This directive controls the setting of the domain to which the tracking cookie applies. If not present, no domain is included in the cookie header field.

The domain string must begin with a dot, and must include at least one embedded dot. That is, ".foo.com" is legal, but "foo.bar.com" and ".com" are not.

CookieExpires 指令 说明语法作用域覆盖项状态模块
Expiry time for the tracking cookie
CookieExpires expiry-period
server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
FileInfo
扩展(E)
mod_usertrack

When used, this directive sets an expiry time on the cookie generated by the usertrack module. The expiry-period can be given either as a number of seconds, or in the format such as "2 weeks 3 days 7 hours". Valid denominations are: years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes and seconds. If the expiry time is in any format other than one number indicating the number of seconds, it must be enclosed by double quotes.

If this directive is not used, cookies last only for the current browser session.

CookieName 指令 说明语法默认值作用域覆盖项状态模块
Name of the tracking cookie
CookieName token
CookieName Apache
server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
FileInfo
扩展(E)
mod_usertrack

This directive allows you to change the name of the cookie this module uses for its tracking purposes. By default the cookie is named "Apache".

You must specify a valid cookie name; results are unpredictable if you use a name containing unusual characters. Valid characters include A-Z, a-z, 0-9, "_", and "-".

CookieStyle 指令 说明语法默认值作用域覆盖项状态模块
Format of the cookie header field
CookieStyle Netscape|Cookie|Cookie2|RFC2109|RFC2965
CookieStyle Netscape
server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
FileInfo
扩展(E)
mod_usertrack

This directive controls the format of the cookie header field. The three formats allowed are:

  • Netscape, which is the original but now deprecated syntax. This is the default, and the syntax Apache has historically used.
  • Cookie或RFC2109, which is the syntax that superseded the Netscape syntax.
  • Cookie2或RFC2965, which is the most current cookie syntax.

Not all clients can understand all of these formats. but you should use the newest one that is generally acceptable to your users' browsers.

CookieTracking 指令 说明语法默认值作用域覆盖项状态模块
Enables tracking cookie
CookieTracking on|off
CookieTracking off
server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
FileInfo
扩展(E)
mod_usertrack

When the user track module is compiled in, and "CookieTracking on" is set, Apache will start sending a user-tracking cookie for all new requests. This directive can be used to turn this behavior on or off on a per-server or per-directory basis. By default, compiling mod_usertrack will not activate cookies.

mod_ssl - Apache 2.2 中文版参考手册

apache > HTTP Server > 文档 > 版本2.2 > 模块
   致谢 | 译者声明 | 本篇译者:<虚位以待> | 本篇译稿完成时间:?年?月?日 | 获取最新版本
apache模块 mod_ssl 说明状态模块名源文件
使用安全套接字层(SSL)和传输层安全(TLS)协议实现高强度加密传输
扩展(E)
ssl_module
mod_ssl.c
概述

This module provides SSL v2/v3 and TLS v1 support for the Apache HTTP Server. It was contributed by Ralf S. Engeschall based on his mod_ssl project and originally derived from work by Ben Laurie.

This module relies on OpenSSL to provide the cryptography engine.

Further details, discussion, and examples are provided in the SSL documentation.

Environment Variables

This module provides a lot of SSL information as additional environment variables to the SSI and CGI namespace. The generated variables are listed in the table below. For backward compatibility the information can be made available under different names, too. Look in the Compatibility chapter for details on the compatibility variables.

Variable Name:Value Type:Description:
HTTPSflagHTTPS is being used.
SSL_PROTOCOLstringThe SSL protocol version (SSLv2, SSLv3, TLSv1)
SSL_SESSION_IDstringThe hex-encoded SSL session id
SSL_CIPHERstringThe cipher specification name
SSL_CIPHER_EXPORTstringtrue if cipher is an export cipher
SSL_CIPHER_USEKEYSIZEnumberNumber of cipher bits (actually used)
SSL_CIPHER_ALGKEYSIZEnumberNumber of cipher bits (possible)
SSL_COMPRESS_METHODstringSSL compression method negotiated
SSL_VERSION_INTERFACEstringThe mod_ssl program version
SSL_VERSION_LIBRARYstringThe OpenSSL program version
SSL_CLIENT_M_VERSIONstringThe version of the client certificate
SSL_CLIENT_M_SERIALstringThe serial of the client certificate
SSL_CLIENT_S_DNstringSubject DN in client's certificate
SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_x509stringComponent of client's Subject DN
SSL_CLIENT_I_DNstringIssuer DN of client's certificate
SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_x509stringComponent of client's Issuer DN
SSL_CLIENT_V_STARTstringValidity of client's certificate (start time)
SSL_CLIENT_V_ENDstringValidity of client's certificate (end time)
SSL_CLIENT_V_REMAINstringNumber of days until client's certificate expires
SSL_CLIENT_A_SIGstringAlgorithm used for the signature of client's certificate
SSL_CLIENT_A_KEYstringAlgorithm used for the public key of client's certificate
SSL_CLIENT_CERTstringPEM-encoded client certificate
SSL_CLIENT_CERT_CHAIN_nstringPEM-encoded certificates in client certificate chain
SSL_CLIENT_VERIFYstringNONE, SUCCESS, GENEROUS或FAILED:reason
SSL_SERVER_M_VERSIONstringThe version of the server certificate
SSL_SERVER_M_SERIALstringThe serial of the server certificate
SSL_SERVER_S_DNstringSubject DN in server's certificate
SSL_SERVER_S_DN_x509stringComponent of server's Subject DN
SSL_SERVER_I_DNstringIssuer DN of server's certificate
SSL_SERVER_I_DN_x509stringComponent of server's Issuer DN
SSL_SERVER_V_STARTstringValidity of server's certificate (start time)
SSL_SERVER_V_ENDstringValidity of server's certificate (end time)
SSL_SERVER_A_SIGstringAlgorithm used for the signature of server's certificate
SSL_SERVER_A_KEYstringAlgorithm used for the public key of server's certificate
SSL_SERVER_CERTstringPEM-encoded server certificate

x509 specifies a component of an X.509 DN; one of C,ST,L,O,OU,CN,T,I,G,S,D,UID,Email. In Apache 2.1 and later, x509 may also include a numeric _n suffix. If the DN in question contains multiple attributes of the same name, this suffix is used as an index to select a particular attribute. For example, where the server certificate subject DN included two OU fields, SSL_SERVER_S_DN_OU_0和SSL_SERVER_S_DN_OU_1 could be used to reference each.

SSL_CLIENT_V_REMAIN is only available in version 2.1 and later.

Custom Log Formats

When mod_ssl is built into Apache or at least loaded (under DSO situation) additional functions exist for the Custom Log Format of mod_log_config. First there is an additional "%{varname}x" eXtension format function which can be used to expand any variables provided by any module, especially those provided by mod_ssl which can you find in the above table.

For backward compatibility there is additionally a special "%{name}c" cryptography format function provided. Information about this function is provided in the Compatibility chapter.

示例

CustomLog logs/ssl_request_log \ "%t %h %{SSL_PROTOCOL}x %{SSL_CIPHER}x \"%r\" %b"

SSLCACertificateFile 指令 说明语法作用域状态模块
File of concatenated PEM-encoded CA Certificates for Client Auth
SSLCACertificateFile file-path
server config, virtual host
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive sets the all-in-one file where you can assemble the Certificates of Certification Authorities (CA) whose clients you deal with. These are used for Client Authentication. Such a file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded Certificate files, in order of preference. This can be used alternatively and/or additionally to SSLCACertificatePath.

示例

SSLCACertificateFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/ca-bundle-client.crt

SSLCACertificatePath 指令 说明语法作用域状态模块
Directory of PEM-encoded CA Certificates for Client Auth
SSLCACertificatePath directory-path
server config, virtual host
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive sets the directory where you keep the Certificates of Certification Authorities (CAs) whose clients you deal with. These are used to verify the client certificate on Client Authentication.

The files in this directory have to be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. So usually you can't just place the Certificate files there: you also have to create symbolic links named hash-value.N. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links. Use the Makefile which comes with mod_ssl to accomplish this task.

示例

SSLCACertificatePath /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/

SSLCADNRequestFile 指令 说明语法作用域状态模块
File of concatenated PEM-encoded CA Certificates for defining acceptable CA names
SSLCADNRequestFile file-path
server config, virtual host
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

When a client certificate is requested by mod_ssl, a list of acceptable Certificate Authority names is sent to the client in the SSL handshake. These CA names can be used by the client to select an appropriate client certificate out of those it has available.

If neither of the directives SSLCADNRequestPath或SSLCADNRequestFile are given, then the set of acceptable CA names sent to the client is the names of all the CA certificates given by the SSLCACertificateFile和SSLCACertificatePath directives; in other words, the names of the CAs which will actually be used to verify the client certificate.

In some circumstances, it is useful to be able to send a set of acceptable CA names which differs from the actual CAs used to verify the client certificate - for example, if the client certificates are signed by intermediate CAs. In such cases, SSLCADNRequestPath and/or SSLCADNRequestFile can be used; the acceptable CA names are then taken from the complete set of certificates in the directory and/or file specified by this pair of directives.

SSLCADNRequestFile must specify an all-in-one file containing a concatenation of PEM-encoded CA certificates.

示例

SSLCADNRequestFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ca-names.crt

SSLCADNRequestPath 指令 说明语法作用域状态模块
Directory of PEM-encoded CA Certificates for defining acceptable CA names
SSLCADNRequestPath directory-path
server config, virtual host
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This optional directive can be used to specify the set of acceptable CA names which will be sent to the client when a client certificate is requested. See the SSLCADNRequestFile directive for more details.

The files in this directory have to be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. So usually you can't just place the Certificate files there: you also have to create symbolic links named hash-value.N. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links. Use the Makefile which comes with mod_ssl to accomplish this task.

示例

SSLCADNRequestPath /usr/local/apache2/conf/ca-names.crt/

SSLCARevocationFile 指令 说明语法作用域状态模块
File of concatenated PEM-encoded CA CRLs for Client Auth
SSLCARevocationFile file-path
server config, virtual host
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive sets the all-in-one file where you can assemble the Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) of Certification Authorities (CA) whose clients you deal with. These are used for Client Authentication. Such a file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded CRL files, in order of preference. This can be used alternatively and/or additionally to SSLCARevocationPath.

示例

SSLCARevocationFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crl/ca-bundle-client.crl

SSLCARevocationPath 指令 说明语法作用域状态模块
Directory of PEM-encoded CA CRLs for Client Auth
SSLCARevocationPath directory-path
server config, virtual host
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive sets the directory where you keep the Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) of Certification Authorities (CAs) whose clients you deal with. These are used to revoke the client certificate on Client Authentication.

The files in this directory have to be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. So usually you have not only to place the CRL files there. Additionally you have to create symbolic links named hash-value.rN. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links. Use the Makefile which comes with mod_ssl to accomplish this task.

示例

SSLCARevocationPath /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crl/

SSLCertificateChainFile 指令 说明语法作用域状态模块
File of PEM-encoded Server CA Certificates
SSLCertificateChainFile file-path
server config, virtual host
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive sets the optional all-in-one file where you can assemble the certificates of Certification Authorities (CA) which form the certificate chain of the server certificate. This starts with the issuing CA certificate of of the server certificate and can range up to the root CA certificate. Such a file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded CA Certificate files, usually in certificate chain order.

This should be used alternatively and/or additionally to SSLCACertificatePath for explicitly constructing the server certificate chain which is sent to the browser in addition to the server certificate. It is especially useful to avoid conflicts with CA certificates when using client authentication. Because although placing a CA certificate of the server certificate chain into SSLCACertificatePath has the same effect for the certificate chain construction, it has the side-effect that client certificates issued by this same CA certificate are also accepted on client authentication. That's usually not one expect.

But be careful: Providing the certificate chain works only if you are using a single (either RSA 或 DSA) based server certificate. If you are using a coupled RSA+DSA certificate pair, this will work only if actually both certificates use the same certificate chain. Else the browsers will be confused in this situation.

示例

SSLCertificateChainFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/ca.crt

SSLCertificateFile 指令 说明语法作用域状态模块
Server PEM-encoded X.509 Certificate file
SSLCertificateFile file-path
server config, virtual host
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive points to the PEM-encoded Certificate file for the server and optionally also to the corresponding RSA or DSA Private Key file for it (contained in the same file). If the contained Private Key is encrypted the Pass Phrase dialog is forced at startup time. This directive can be used up to two times (referencing different filenames) when both a RSA and a DSA based server certificate is used in parallel.

示例

SSLCertificateFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/server.crt

SSLCertificateKeyFile 指令 说明语法作用域状态模块
Server PEM-encoded Private Key file
SSLCertificateKeyFile file-path
server config, virtual host
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive points to the PEM-encoded Private Key file for the server. If the Private Key is not combined with the Certificate in the SSLCertificateFile, use this additional directive to point to the file with the stand-alone Private Key. When SSLCertificateFile is used and the file contains both the Certificate and the Private Key this directive need not be used. But we strongly discourage this practice. Instead we recommend you to separate the Certificate and the Private Key. If the contained Private Key is encrypted, the Pass Phrase dialog is forced at startup time. This directive can be used up to two times (referencing different filenames) when both a RSA and a DSA based private key is used in parallel.

示例

SSLCertificateKeyFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.key/server.key

SSLCipherSuite 指令 说明语法默认值作用域覆盖项状态模块
Cipher Suite available for negotiation in SSL handshake
SSLCipherSuite cipher-spec
SSLCipherSuite ALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP
server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
AuthConfig
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This complex directive uses a colon-separated cipher-spec string consisting of OpenSSL cipher specifications to configure the Cipher Suite the client is permitted to negotiate in the SSL handshake phase. Notice that this directive can be used both in per-server and per-directory context. In per-server context it applies to the standard SSL handshake when a connection is established. In per-directory context it forces a SSL renegotation with the reconfigured Cipher Suite after the HTTP request was read but before the HTTP response is sent.

An SSL cipher specification in cipher-spec is composed of 4 major attributes plus a few extra minor ones:

  • Key Exchange Algorithm:
    RSA or Diffie-Hellman variants.
  • Authentication Algorithm:
    RSA, Diffie-Hellman, DSS or none.
  • Cipher/Encryption Algorithm:
    DES, Triple-DES, RC4, RC2, IDEA or none.
  • MAC Digest Algorithm:
    MD5, SHA or SHA1.

An SSL cipher can also be an export cipher and is either a SSLv2 or SSLv3/TLSv1 cipher (here TLSv1 is equivalent to SSLv3). To specify which ciphers to use, one can either specify all the Ciphers, one at a time, or use aliases to specify the preference and order for the ciphers (see Table 1).

TagDescription
Key Exchange Algorithm:
kRSARSA key exchange
kDHrDiffie-Hellman key exchange with RSA key
kDHdDiffie-Hellman key exchange with DSA key
kEDHEphemeral (temp.key) Diffie-Hellman key exchange (no cert)
Authentication Algorithm:
aNULLNo authentication
aRSARSA authentication
aDSSDSS authentication
aDHDiffie-Hellman authentication
Cipher Encoding Algorithm:
eNULLNo encoding
DESDES encoding
3DESTriple-DES encoding
RC4RC4 encoding
RC2RC2 encoding
IDEAIDEA encoding
MAC Digest Algorithm:
MD5MD5 hash function
SHA1SHA1 hash function
SHASHA hash function
Aliases:
SSLv2all SSL version 2.0 ciphers
SSLv3all SSL version 3.0 ciphers
TLSv1all TLS version 1.0 ciphers
EXPall export ciphers
EXPORT40all 40-bit export ciphers only
EXPORT56all 56-bit export ciphers only
LOWall low strength ciphers (no export, single DES)
MEDIUMall ciphers with 128 bit encryption
HIGHall ciphers using Triple-DES
RSAall ciphers using RSA key exchange
DHall ciphers using Diffie-Hellman key exchange
EDHall ciphers using Ephemeral Diffie-Hellman key exchange
ADHall ciphers using Anonymous Diffie-Hellman key exchange
DSSall ciphers using DSS authentication
NULLall ciphers using no encryption

Now where this becomes interesting is that these can be put together to specify the order and ciphers you wish to use. To speed this up there are also aliases (SSLv2, SSLv3, TLSv1, EXP, LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH) for certain groups of ciphers. These tags can be joined together with prefixes to form the cipher-spec. Available prefixes are:

  • none: add cipher to list
  • +: add ciphers to list and pull them to current location in list
  • -: remove cipher from list (can be added later again)
  • !: kill cipher from list completely (can not be added later again)

A simpler way to look at all of this is to use the "openssl ciphers -v" command which provides a nice way to successively create the correct cipher-spec string. The default cipher-spec string is "ALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP" which means the following: first, remove from consideration any ciphers that do not authenticate, i.e. for SSL only the Anonymous Diffie-Hellman ciphers. Next, use ciphers using RC4 and RSA. Next include the high, medium and then the low security ciphers. Finally pull all SSLv2 and export ciphers to the end of the list.

$ openssl ciphers -v 'ALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP'
NULL-SHASSLv3 Kx=RSAAu=RSA  Enc=NoneMac=SHA1
NULL-MD5SSLv3 Kx=RSAAu=RSA  Enc=NoneMac=MD5
EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHASSLv3 Kx=DHAu=RSA  Enc=3DES(168) Mac=SHA1
...............
EXP-RC4-MD5SSLv3 Kx=RSA(512) Au=RSA  Enc=RC4(40)Mac=MD5  export
EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5SSLv2 Kx=RSA(512) Au=RSA  Enc=RC2(40)Mac=MD5  export
EXP-RC4-MD5SSLv2 Kx=RSA(512) Au=RSA  Enc=RC4(40)Mac=MD5  export

The complete list of particular RSA & DH ciphers for SSL is given in Table 2.

示例

SSLCipherSuite RSA:!EXP:!NULL:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:-LOW

Cipher-TagProtocolKey Ex.Auth.Enc.MACType
RSA Ciphers:
DES-CBC3-SHASSLv3RSARSA3DES(168)SHA1
DES-CBC3-MD5SSLv2RSARSA3DES(168)MD5
IDEA-CBC-SHASSLv3RSARSAIDEA(128)SHA1
RC4-SHASSLv3RSARSARC4(128)SHA1
RC4-MD5SSLv3RSARSARC4(128)MD5
IDEA-CBC-MD5SSLv2RSARSAIDEA(128)MD5
RC2-CBC-MD5SSLv2RSARSARC2(128)MD5
RC4-MD5SSLv2RSARSARC4(128)MD5
DES-CBC-SHASSLv3RSARSADES(56)SHA1
RC4-64-MD5SSLv2RSARSARC4(64)MD5
DES-CBC-MD5SSLv2RSARSADES(56)MD5
EXP-DES-CBC-SHASSLv3RSA(512)RSADES(40)SHA1 export
EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5SSLv3RSA(512)RSARC2(40)MD5 export
EXP-RC4-MD5SSLv3RSA(512)RSARC4(40)MD5 export
EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5SSLv2RSA(512)RSARC2(40)MD5 export
EXP-RC4-MD5SSLv2RSA(512)RSARC4(40)MD5 export
NULL-SHASSLv3RSARSANoneSHA1
NULL-MD5SSLv3RSARSANoneMD5
Diffie-Hellman Ciphers:
ADH-DES-CBC3-SHASSLv3DHNone3DES(168)SHA1
ADH-DES-CBC-SHASSLv3DHNoneDES(56)SHA1
ADH-RC4-MD5SSLv3DHNoneRC4(128)MD5
EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHASSLv3DHRSA3DES(168)SHA1
EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHASSLv3DHDSS3DES(168)SHA1
EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHASSLv3DHRSADES(56)SHA1
EDH-DSS-DES-CBC-SHASSLv3DHDSSDES(56)SHA1
EXP-EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHASSLv3DH(512)RSADES(40)SHA1 export
EXP-EDH-DSS-DES-CBC-SHASSLv3DH(512)DSSDES(40)SHA1 export
EXP-ADH-DES-CBC-SHASSLv3DH(512)NoneDES(40)SHA1 export
EXP-ADH-RC4-MD5SSLv3DH(512)NoneRC4(40)MD5 export
SSLCryptoDevice 指令 说明语法默认值作用域状态模块兼容性
Enable use of a cryptographic hardware accelerator
SSLCryptoDevice engine
SSLCryptoDevice builtin
server config
扩展(E)
mod_ssl
Available if mod_ssl is built using -DSSL_ENGINE_EXPERIMENTAL

This directive enables use of a cryptographic hardware accelerator board to offload some of the SSL processing overhead. This directive can only be used if the SSL toolkit is built with "engine" support; OpenSSL 0.9.7 and later releases have "engine" support by default, the separate "-engine" releases of OpenSSL 0.9.6 must be used.

To discover which engine names are supported, run the command "openssl engine".

示例

# For a Broadcom accelerator:
SSLCryptoDevice ubsec

SSLEngine 指令 说明语法默认值作用域状态模块
SSL Engine Operation Switch
SSLEngine on|off|optional
SSLEngine off
server config, virtual host
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive toggles the usage of the SSL/TLS Protocol Engine. This is usually used inside a <VirtualHost> section to enable SSL/TLS for a particular virtual host. By default the SSL/TLS Protocol Engine is disabled for both the main server and all configured virtual hosts.

示例

<VirtualHost _default_:443>
SSLEngine on
...
</VirtualHost>

In Apache 2.1 and later, SSLEngine can be set to optional. This enables support for RFC 2817, Upgrading to TLS Within HTTP/1.1. At this time no web browsers support RFC 2817.

SSLHonorCipherOrder 指令 说明语法作用域状态模块兼容性
Option to prefer the server's cipher preference order
SSLHonorCiperOrder flag
server config, virtual host
扩展(E)
mod_ssl
仅在 Apache 2.1 and later, if using OpenSSL 0.9.7 or later

When choosing a cipher during an SSLv3 or TLSv1 handshake, normally the client's preference is used. If this directive is enabled, the server's preference will be used instead.

示例

SSLHonorCipherOrder on

SSLMutex 指令 说明语法默认值作用域状态模块
Semaphore for internal mutual exclusion of operations
SSLMutex type
SSLMutex none
server config
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This configures the SSL engine's semaphore (aka. lock) which is used for mutual exclusion of operations which have to be done in a synchronized way between the pre-forked Apache server processes. This directive can only be used in the global server context because it's only useful to have one global mutex. This directive is designed to closely match the AcceptMutex directive.

The following Mutex types are available:

  • none | no

    This is the default where no Mutex is used at all. Use it at your own risk. But because currently the Mutex is mainly used for synchronizing write access to the SSL Session Cache you can live without it as long as you accept a sometimes garbled Session Cache. So it's not recommended to leave this the default. Instead configure a real Mutex.

  • posixsem

    This is an elegant Mutex variant where a Posix Semaphore is used when possible. It is only available when the underlying platform and APR supports it.

  • sysvsem

    This is a somewhat elegant Mutex variant where a SystemV IPC Semaphore is used when possible. It is possible to "leak" SysV semaphores if processes crash before the semaphore is removed. It is only available when the underlying platform and APR supports it.

  • sem

    This directive tells the SSL Module to pick the "best" semaphore implementation available to it, choosing between Posix and SystemV IPC, in that order. It is only available when the underlying platform and APR supports at least one of the 2.

  • pthread

    This directive tells the SSL Module to use Posix thread mutexes. It is only available if the underlying platform and APR supports it.

  • fcntl:/path/to/mutex

    This is a portable Mutex variant where a physical (lock-)file and the fcntl() fucntion are used as the Mutex. Always use a local disk filesystem for /path/to/mutex and never a file residing on a NFS- or AFS-filesystem. It is only available when the underlying platform and APR supports it. Note: Internally, the Process ID (PID) of the Apache parent process is automatically appended to /path/to/mutex to make it unique, so you don't have to worry about conflicts yourself. Notice that this type of mutex is not available under the win32 environment. There you have to use the semaphore mutex.

  • flock:/path/to/mutex

    This is similar to the fcntl:/path/to/mutex method with the exception that the flock() function is used to provide file locking. It is only available when the underlying platform and APR supports it.

  • file:/path/to/mutex

    This directive tells the SSL Module to pick the "best" file locking implementation available to it, choosing between fcntl和flock, in that order. It is only available when the underlying platform and APR supports at least one of the 2.

  • default | yes

    This directive tells the SSL Module to pick the default locking implementation as determined by the platform and APR.

示例

SSLMutex file:/usr/local/apache/logs/ssl_mutex

SSLOptions 指令 说明语法作用域覆盖项状态模块
Configure various SSL engine run-time options
SSLOptions [+|-]option ...
server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
Options
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive can be used to control various run-time options on a per-directory basis. Normally, if multiple SSLOptions could apply to a directory, then the most specific one is taken completely; the options are not merged. However if all the options on the SSLOptions directive are preceded by a plus (+) or minus (-) symbol, the options are merged. Any options preceded by a + are added to the options currently in force, and any options preceded by a - are removed from the options currently in force.

The available options are:

  • StdEnvVars

    When this option is enabled, the standard set of SSL related CGI/SSI environment variables are created. This per default is disabled for performance reasons, because the information extraction step is a rather expensive operation. So one usually enables this option for CGI and SSI requests only.

  • CompatEnvVars

    When this option is enabled, additional CGI/SSI environment variables are created for backward compatibility to other Apache SSL solutions. Look in the Compatibility chapter for details on the particular variables generated.

  • ExportCertData

    When this option is enabled, additional CGI/SSI environment variables are created: SSL_SERVER_CERT, SSL_CLIENT_CERT和SSL_CLIENT_CERT_CHAIN_n (with n = 0,1,2,..). These contain the PEM-encoded X.509 Certificates of server and client for the current HTTPS connection and can be used by CGI scripts for deeper Certificate checking. Additionally all other certificates of the client certificate chain are provided, too. This bloats up the environment a little bit which is why you have to use this option to enable it on demand.

  • FakeBasicAuth

    When this option is enabled, the Subject Distinguished Name (DN) of the Client X509 Certificate is translated into a HTTP Basic Authorization username. This means that the standard Apache authentication methods can be used for access control. The user name is just the Subject of the Client's X509 Certificate (can be determined by running OpenSSL's openssl x509 command: openssl x509 -noout -subject -in certificate.crt). Note that no password is obtained from the user. Every entry in the user file needs this password: "xxj31ZMTZzkVA", which is the DES-encrypted version of the word "password". Those who live under MD5-based encryption (for instance under FreeBSD or BSD/OS, etc.) should use the following MD5 hash of the same word: "$1$OXLyS...$Owx8s2/m9/gfkcRVXzgoE/".

  • StrictRequire

    This forces forbidden access when SSLRequireSSL或SSLRequire successfully decided that access should be forbidden. Usually the default is that in the case where a "Satisfy any" directive is used, and other access restrictions are passed, denial of access due to SSLRequireSSL或SSLRequire is overridden (because that's how the Apache Satisfy mechanism should work.) But for strict access restriction you can use SSLRequireSSL and/or SSLRequire in combination with an "SSLOptions +StrictRequire". Then an additional "Satisfy Any" has no chance once mod_ssl has decided to deny access.

  • OptRenegotiate

    This enables optimized SSL connection renegotiation handling when SSL directives are used in per-directory context. By default a strict scheme is enabled where every per-directory reconfiguration of SSL parameters causes a full SSL renegotiation handshake. When this option is used mod_ssl tries to avoid unnecessary handshakes by doing more granular (but still safe) parameter checks. Nevertheless these granular checks sometimes maybe not what the user expects, so enable this on a per-directory basis only, please.

示例

SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth -StrictRequire
<Files ~ "\.(cgi|shtml)$">
SSLOptions +StdEnvVars +CompatEnvVars -ExportCertData
<Files>

SSLPassPhraseDialog 指令 说明语法默认值作用域状态模块
Type of pass phrase dialog for encrypted private keys
SSLPassPhraseDialog type
SSLPassPhraseDialog builtin
server config
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

When Apache starts up it has to read the various Certificate (see SSLCertificateFile) and Private Key (see SSLCertificateKeyFile) files of the SSL-enabled virtual servers. Because for security reasons the Private Key files are usually encrypted, mod_ssl needs to query the administrator for a Pass Phrase in order to decrypt those files. This query can be done in two ways which can be configured by type:

  • builtin

    This is the default where an interactive terminal dialog occurs at startup time just before Apache detaches from the terminal. Here the administrator has to manually enter the Pass Phrase for each encrypted Private Key file. Because a lot of SSL-enabled virtual hosts can be configured, the following reuse-scheme is used to minimize the dialog: When a Private Key file is encrypted, all known Pass Phrases (at the beginning there are none, of course) are tried. If one of those known Pass Phrases succeeds no dialog pops up for this particular Private Key file. If none succeeded, another Pass Phrase is queried on the terminal and remembered for the next round (where it perhaps can be reused).

    This scheme allows mod_ssl to be maximally flexible (because for N encrypted Private Key files you can use N different Pass Phrases - but then you have to enter all of them, of course) while minimizing the terminal dialog (i.e. when you use a single Pass Phrase for all N Private Key files this Pass Phrase is queried only once).

  • |/path/to/program [args...]

    This mode allows an external program to be used which acts as a pipe to a particular input device; the program is sent the standard prompt text used for the builtin mode on stdin, and is expected to write password strings on stdout. If several passwords are needed (or an incorrect password is entered), additional prompt text will be written subsequent to the first password being returned, and more passwords must then be written back.

  • exec:/path/to/program

    Here an external program is configured which is called at startup for each encrypted Private Key file. It is called with two arguments (the first is of the form "servername:portnumber", the second is either "RSA" or "DSA"), which indicate for which server and algorithm it has to print the corresponding Pass Phrase to stdout. The intent is that this external program first runs security checks to make sure that the system is not compromised by an attacker, and only when these checks were passed successfully it provides the Pass Phrase.

    Both these security checks, and the way the Pass Phrase is determined, can be as complex as you like. Mod_ssl just defines the interface: an executable program which provides the Pass Phrase on stdout. Nothing more or less! So, if you're really paranoid about security, here is your interface. Anything else has to be left as an exercise to the administrator, because local security requirements are so different.

    The reuse-algorithm above is used here, too. In other words: The external program is called only once per unique Pass Phrase.

示例

SSLPassPhraseDialog exec:/usr/local/apache/sbin/pp-filter

SSLProtocol 指令 说明语法默认值作用域覆盖项状态模块
Configure usable SSL protocol flavors
SSLProtocol [+|-]protocol ...
SSLProtocol all
server config, virtual host
Options
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive can be used to control the SSL protocol flavors mod_ssl should use when establishing its server environment. Clients then can only connect with one of the provided protocols.

The available (case-insensitive) protocols are:

  • SSLv2

    This is the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol, version 2.0. It is the original SSL protocol as designed by Netscape Corporation.

  • SSLv3

    This is the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol, version 3.0. It is the successor to SSLv2 and the currently (as of February 1999) de-facto standardized SSL protocol from Netscape Corporation. It's supported by almost all popular browsers.

  • TLSv1

    This is the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol, version 1.0. It is the successor to SSLv3 and currently (as of February 1999) still under construction by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It's still not supported by any popular browsers.

  • All

    This is a shortcut for "+SSLv2 +SSLv3 +TLSv1" and a convinient way for enabling all protocols except one when used in combination with the minus sign on a protocol as the example above shows.

示例

#enable SSLv3 and TLSv1, but not SSLv2
SSLProtocol all -SSLv2

SSLProxyCACertificateFile 指令 说明语法作用域状态模块
File of concatenated PEM-encoded CA Certificates for Remote Server Auth
SSLProxyCACertificateFile file-path
server config, virtual host
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive sets the all-in-one file where you can assemble the Certificates of Certification Authorities (CA) whose remote servers you deal with. These are used for Remote Server Authentication. Such a file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded Certificate files, in order of preference. This can be used alternatively and/or additionally to SSLProxyCACertificatePath.

示例

SSLProxyCACertificateFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/ca-bundle-remote-server.crt

SSLProxyCACertificatePath 指令 说明语法作用域状态模块
Directory of PEM-encoded CA Certificates for Remote Server Auth
SSLProxyCACertificatePath directory-path
server config, virtual host
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive sets the directory where you keep the Certificates of Certification Authorities (CAs) whose remote servers you deal with. These are used to verify the remote server certificate on Remote Server Authentication.

The files in this directory have to be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. So usually you can't just place the Certificate files there: you also have to create symbolic links named hash-value.N. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links. Use the Makefile which comes with mod_ssl to accomplish this task.

示例

SSLProxyCACertificatePath /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/

SSLProxyCARevocationFile 指令 说明语法作用域状态模块
File of concatenated PEM-encoded CA CRLs for Remote Server Auth
SSLProxyCARevocationFile file-path
server config, virtual host
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive sets the all-in-one file where you can assemble the Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) of Certification Authorities (CA) whose remote servers you deal with. These are used for Remote Server Authentication. Such a file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded CRL files, in order of preference. This can be used alternatively and/or additionally to SSLProxyCARevocationPath.

示例

SSLProxyCARevocationFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crl/ca-bundle-remote-server.crl

SSLProxyCARevocationPath 指令 说明语法作用域状态模块
Directory of PEM-encoded CA CRLs for Remote Server Auth
SSLProxyCARevocationPath directory-path
server config, virtual host
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive sets the directory where you keep the Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) of Certification Authorities (CAs) whose remote servers you deal with. These are used to revoke the remote server certificate on Remote Server Authentication.

The files in this directory have to be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. So usually you have not only to place the CRL files there. Additionally you have to create symbolic links named hash-value.rN. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links. Use the Makefile which comes with mod_ssl to accomplish this task.

示例

SSLProxyCARevocationPath /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crl/

SSLProxyCipherSuite 指令 说明语法默认值作用域覆盖项状态模块
Cipher Suite available for negotiation in SSL proxy handshake
SSLProxyCipherSuite cipher-spec
SSLProxyCipherSuite ALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP
server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
AuthConfig
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

Equivalent to SSLCipherSuite, but for the proxy connection. Please refer to SSLCipherSuite for additional information.

SSLProxyEngine 指令 说明语法默认值作用域状态模块
SSL Proxy Engine Operation Switch
SSLProxyEngine on|off
SSLProxyEngine off
server config, virtual host
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive toggles the usage of the SSL/TLS Protocol Engine for proxy. This is usually used inside a <VirtualHost> section to enable SSL/TLS for proxy usage in a particular virtual host. By default the SSL/TLS Protocol Engine is disabled for proxy image both for the main server and all configured virtual hosts.

示例

<VirtualHost _default_:443>
SSLProxyEngine on
...
</VirtualHost>

SSLProxyMachineCertificateFile 指令 说明语法作用域覆盖项状态模块
File of concatenated PEM-encoded client certificates and keys to be used by the proxy
SSLProxyMachineCertificateFile filename
server config
Not applicable
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive sets the all-in-one file where you keep the certificates and keys used for authentication of the proxy server to remote servers.

This referenced file is simply the concatenation of the various PEM-encoded certificate files, in order of preference. Use this directive alternatively or additionally to SSLProxyMachineCertificatePath.

Currently there is no support for encrypted private keys

示例

SSLProxyMachineCertificateFile /usr/local/apache2/conf/ssl.crt/proxy.pem

SSLProxyMachineCertificatePath 指令 说明语法作用域覆盖项状态模块
Directory of PEM-encoded client certificates and keys to be used by the proxy
SSLProxyMachineCertificatePath directory
server config
Not applicable
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive sets the directory where you keep the certificates and keys used for authentication of the proxy server to remote servers.

The files in this directory must be PEM-encoded and are accessed through hash filenames. Additionally, you must create symbolic links named hash-value.N. And you should always make sure this directory contains the appropriate symbolic links. Use the Makefile which comes with mod_ssl to accomplish this task.

Currently there is no support for encrypted private keys

示例

SSLProxyMachineCertificatePath /usr/local/apache2/conf/proxy.crt/

SSLProxyProtocol 指令 说明语法默认值作用域覆盖项状态模块
Configure usable SSL protocol flavors for proxy usage
SSLProxyProtocol [+|-]protocol ...
SSLProxyProtocol all
server config, virtual host
Options
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive can be used to control the SSL protocol flavors mod_ssl should use when establishing its server environment for proxy . It will only connect to servers using one of the provided protocols.

Please refer to SSLProtocol for additional information.

SSLProxyVerify 指令 说明语法默认值作用域覆盖项状态模块
Type of remote server Certificate verification
SSLProxyVerify level
SSLProxyVerify none
server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
AuthConfig
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

When a proxy is configured to forward requests to a remote SSL server, this directive can be used to configure certificate verification of the remote server. Notice that this directive can be used both in per-server and per-directory context. In per-server context it applies to the remote server authentication process used in the standard SSL handshake when a connection is established by the proxy. In per-directory context it forces a SSL renegotation with the reconfigured remote server verification level after the HTTP request was read but before the HTTP response is sent.

Note that even when certificate verification is enabled, mod_ssl does not check whether the commonName (hostname) attribute of the server certificate matches the hostname used to connect to the server. In other words, the proxy does not guarantee that the SSL connection to the backend server is "secure" beyond the fact that the certificate is signed by one of the CAs configured using the SSLProxyCACertificatePath and/or SSLProxyCACertificateFile directives.

The following levels are available for level:

  • none: no remote server Certificate is required at all
  • optional: the remote server may present a valid Certificate
  • require: the remote server has to present a valid Certificate
  • optional_no_ca: the remote server may present a valid Certificate
    but it need not to be (successfully) verifiable.

In practice only levels none和require are really interesting, because level optional doesn't work with all servers and level optional_no_ca is actually against the idea of authentication (but can be used to establish SSL test pages, etc.)

示例

SSLProxyVerify require

SSLProxyVerifyDepth 指令 说明语法默认值作用域覆盖项状态模块
Maximum depth of CA Certificates in Remote Server Certificate verification
SSLProxyVerifyDepth number
SSLProxyVerifyDepth 1
server config, virtual host, directory, .htaccess
AuthConfig
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive sets how deeply mod_ssl should verify before deciding that the remote server does not have a valid certificate. Notice that this directive can be used both in per-server and per-directory context. In per-server context it applies to the client authentication process used in the standard SSL handshake when a connection is established. In per-directory context it forces a SSL renegotation with the reconfigured remote server verification depth after the HTTP request was read but before the HTTP response is sent.

The depth actually is the maximum number of intermediate certificate issuers, i.e. the number of CA certificates which are max allowed to be followed while verifying the remote server certificate. A depth of 0 means that self-signed remote server certificates are accepted only, the default depth of 1 means the remote server certificate can be self-signed or has to be signed by a CA which is directly known to the server (i.e. the CA's certificate is under SSLProxyCACertificatePath), etc.

示例

SSLProxyVerifyDepth 10

SSLRandomSeed 指令 说明语法作用域状态模块
Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) seeding source
SSLRandomSeed context source [bytes]
server config
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This configures one or more sources for seeding the Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) in OpenSSL at startup time (context is startup) and/or just before a new SSL connection is established (context is connect). This directive can only be used in the global server context because the PRNG is a global facility.

The following source variants are available:

  • builtin

    This is the always available builtin seeding source. It's usage consumes minimum CPU cycles under runtime and hence can be always used without drawbacks. The source used for seeding the PRNG contains of the current time, the current process id and (when applicable) a randomly choosen 1KB extract of the inter-process scoreboard structure of Apache. The drawback is that this is not really a strong source and at startup time (where the scoreboard is still not available) this source just produces a few bytes of entropy. So you should always, at least for the startup, use an additional seeding source.

  • file:/path/to/source

    This variant uses an external file /path/to/source as the source for seeding the PRNG. When bytes is specified, only the first bytes number of bytes of the file form the entropy (and bytes is given to /path/to/source as the first argument). When bytes is not specified the whole file forms the entropy (and 0 is given to /path/to/source as the first argument). Use this especially at startup time, for instance with an available /dev/random and/or /dev/urandom devices (which usually exist on modern Unix derivates like FreeBSD and linux).

    But be careful: Usually /dev/random provides only as much entropy data as it actually has, i.e. when you request 512 bytes of entropy, but the device currently has only 100 bytes available two things can happen: On some platforms you receive only the 100 bytes while on other platforms the read blocks until enough bytes are available (which can take a long time). Here using an existing /dev/urandom is better, because it never blocks and actually gives the amount of requested data. The drawback is just that the quality of the received data may not be the best.

    On some platforms like FreeBSD one can even control how the entropy is actually generated, i.e. by which system interrupts. More details one can find under rndcontrol(8) on those platforms. Alternatively, when your system lacks such a random device, you can use tool like EGD (Entropy Gathering Daemon) and run it's client program with the exec:/path/to/program/ variant (see below) or use egd:/path/to/egd-socket (see below).

  • exec:/path/to/program

    This variant uses an external executable /path/to/program as the source for seeding the PRNG. When bytes is specified, only the first bytes number of bytes of its stdout contents form the entropy. When bytes is not specified, the entirety of the data produced on stdout form the entropy. Use this only at startup time when you need a very strong seeding with the help of an external program (for instance as in the example above with the truerand utility you can find in the mod_ssl distribution which is based on the AT&T truerand library). Using this in the connection context slows down the server too dramatically, of course. So usually you should avoid using external programs in that context.

  • egd:/path/to/egd-socket (Unix only)

    This variant uses the Unix domain socket of the external Entropy Gathering Daemon (EGD) (see http://www.lothar.com/tech /crypto/) to seed the PRNG. Use this if no random device exists on your platform.

示例

SSLRandomSeed startup builtin
SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/random
SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/urandom 1024
SSLRandomSeed startup exec:/usr/local/bin/truerand 16
SSLRandomSeed connect builtin
SSLRandomSeed connect file:/dev/random
SSLRandomSeed connect file:/dev/urandom 1024

SSLRequire 指令 说明语法作用域覆盖项状态模块
Allow access only when an arbitrarily complex boolean expression is true
SSLRequire expression
directory, .htaccess
AuthConfig
扩展(E)
mod_ssl

This directive specifies a general access requirement which has to be fulfilled in order to allow access. It is a very powerful directive because the requirement specification is an arbitrarily complex boolean expression containing any number of access checks.

The implementation of SSLRequire is not thread safe. Using SSLRequire inside .htaccess files on a threaded MPM may cause random crashes.

The expression must match the following syntax (given as a BNF grammar notation):

expr::= "true" | "false"
| "!" expr
| expr "&&" expr
| expr "||" expr
| "(" expr ")"
| comp

comp::= word "==" word | word "eq" word
| word "!=" word | word "ne" word
| word "<" word | word "lt" word
| word "<=" word | word "le" word
| word ">" word | word "gt" word
| word ">=" word | word "ge" word
| word "in" "{" wordlist "}"
| word "in" "OID(" word ")"
| word "=~" regex
| word "!~" regex

wordlist ::= word
| wordlist ", " word

word::= digit
| cstring
| variable
| function

digit::= [0-9]+
cstring ::= "..."
variable ::= "%{" varname "}"
function ::= funcname "(" funcargs ")"

while for varname any variable from Table 3 can be used. Finally for funcname the following functions are available:

  • file(filename)

    This function takes one string argument and expands to the contents of the file. This is especially useful for matching this contents against a regular expression, etc.

Notice that expression is first parsed into an internal machine representation and then evaluated in a second step. Actually, in Global and Per-Server Class context expression is parsed at startup time and at runtime only the machine representation is executed. For Per-Directory context this is different: here expression has to be parsed and immediately executed for every request.

示例

SSLRequire (%{SSL_CIPHER} !~ m/^(EXP|NULL)-/ \
and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_O} eq "Snake Oil, Ltd." \
and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OU} in {"Staff", "CA", "Dev"} \
and %{TIME_WDAY} >= 1 and %{TIME_WDAY} <= 5 \
and %{TIME_HOUR} >= 8 and %{TIME_HOUR} <= 20) \
or %{REMOTE_ADDR} =~ m/^192\.76\.162\.[0-9]+$/

OID() function expects to find zero or more instances of the given OID in the client certificate, and compares the left-hand side string against the value of matching OID attributes. Every matching OID is checked, until a match is found.

Standard CGI/1.0 and Apache variables:

HTTP_USER_AGENTPATH_INFOAUTH_TYPE
HTTP_REFERERQUERY_STRINGSERVER_SOFTWARE
HTTP_COOKIEREMOTE_HOSTAPI_VERSION
HTTP_FORWARDEDREMOTE_IDENTTIME_YEAR
HTTP_HOSTIS_SUBREqtIME_MON
HTTP_PROXY_CONNECTION  DOCUMENT_ROOTTIME_DAY
HTTP_ACCEPTSERVER_ADMINTIME_HOUR
HTTP:headernameSERVER_NAMETIME_MIN
THE_REQUESTSERVER_PORTTIME_SEC
REQUEST_METHODSERVER_PROTOCOLTIME_WDAY
REQUEST_SCHEMEREMOTE_ADDRTIME
REQUEST_URIREMOTE_USERENV:variablename
REQUEST_FILENAME

SSL-related variables:

HTTPSSSL_CLIENT_M_VERSIONSSL_SERVER_M_VERSION
SSL_CLIENT_M_SERIALSSL_SERVER_M_SERIAL
SSL_PROTOCOLSSL_CLIENT_V_STARTSSL_SERVER_V_START
SSL_SESSION_IDSSL_CLIENT_V_ENDSSL_SERVER_V_END
SSL_CIPHERSSL_CLIENT_S_DNSSL_SERVER_S_DN
SSL_CIPHER_EXPORTSSL_CLIENT_S_DN_CSSL_SERVER_S_DN_C
SSL_CIPHER_ALGKEYSIZE  SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_STSSL_SERVER_S_DN_ST
SSL_CIPHER_USEKEYSIZE  SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_LSSL_SERVER_S_DN_L
SSL_VERSION_LIBRARYSSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OSSL_SERVER_S_DN_O
SSL_VERSION_INTERFACE  SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OUSSL_SERVER_S_DN_OU
SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_CNSSL_SERVER_S_DN_CN
SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_TSSL_SERVER_S_DN_T
SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_ISSL_SERVER_S_DN_I
SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_GSSL_SERVER_S_DN_G
SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_SSSL_SERVER_S_DN_S
SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_DSSL_SERVER_S_DN_D
SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_UIDSSL_SERVER_S_DN_UID
SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_Email  SSL_SERVER_S_DN_Email
SSL_CLIENT_I_DNSSL_SERVER_I_DN
SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_CSSL_SERVER_I_DN_C
SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_STSSL_SERVER_I_DN_ST
SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_LSSL_SERVER_I_DN_L
SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_OSSL_SERVER_I_DN_O
SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_OUSSL_SERVER_I_DN_OU
SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_CNSSL_SERVER_I_DN_CN
SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_TSSL_SERVER_I_DN_T
SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_ISSL_SERVER_I_DN_I
SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_GSSL_SERVER_I_DN_G
SSL_CLIENT_I_DN_SSSL_SER

mod_status - Apache 2.2 中文版参考手册

apache > HTTP Server > 文档 > 版本2.2 > 模块
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apache模块 mod_status 说明状态模块名源文件
生成描述服务器状态的Web页面
基本(B)
status_module
mod_status.c
概述

The Status module allows a server administrator to find out how well their server is performing. A html page is presented that gives the current server statistics in an easily readable form. If required this page can be made to automatically refresh (given a compatible browser). Another page gives a simple machine-readable list of the current server state.

The details given are:

  • The number of worker serving requests
  • The number of idle worker
  • The status of each worker, the number of requests that worker has performed and the total number of bytes served by the worker (*)
  • A total number of accesses and byte count served (*)
  • The time the server was started/restarted and the time it has been running for
  • Averages giving the number of requests per second, the number of bytes served per second and the average number of bytes per request (*)
  • The current percentage CPU used by each worker and in total by Apache (*)
  • The current hosts and requests being processed (*)

A compile-time option must be used to display the details marked "(*)" as the instrumentation required for obtaining these statistics does not exist within standard Apache.

Enabling Status Support

To enable status reports only for browsers from the foo.com domain add this code to your httpd.conf configuration file

<Location /server-status>
SetHandler server-status

Order Deny,Allow
Deny from all
Allow from .foo.com
</Location>

You can now access server statistics by using a Web browser to access the page http://your.server.name/server-status

Automatic Updates

You can get the status page to update itself automatically if you have a browser that supports "refresh". Access the page http://your.server.name/server-status?refresh=N to refresh the page every N seconds.

Machine Readable Status File

A machine-readable version of the status file is available by accessing the page http://your.server.name/server-status?auto. This is useful when automatically run, see the perl program in the /support directory of Apache, log_server_status.

It should be noted that if mod_status is compiled into the server, its handler capability is available in all configuration files, including per-directory files (例如,.htaccess). This may have security-related ramifications for your site.
ExtendedStatus 指令 说明语法默认值作用域状态模块兼容性
Keep track of extended status information for each request
ExtendedStatus On|Off
ExtendedStatus Off
server config
基本(B)
mod_status
ExtendedStatus is only available in Apache 1.3.2 及以后的版本中可用

This setting applies to the entire server, and cannot be enabled or disabled on a virtualhost-by-virtualhost basis. The collection of extended status information can slow down the server.